Trophy Hunting In Africa: 2 Yr Old Study Funded By France & The IUNC

Randy F

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I came across this 2 year old study while researching an unrelated subject and it caught my eye. It's interesting that of all the information written in this study, this is the headline they chose. You can read the full report by clicking on "this document" at the bottom. What are your thoughts? Big problem or just another opinion?


It's a lengthy read and I haven't thoroughly read it all yet but here is his conclusion:


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Conclusion: As was already stated in the Papaco study published on this subject in 2009,13,6, the economic returns from big game hunting are not sufficient to ensure its sustainability.

The figures mentioned here clearly show that the sums spent by the companies that organise big game hunting are insufficient and that this leads to the degradation of wildlife resources and their habitat in the face of the growing pressures.

Moreover, the benefits for the populations are so low that they cannot accept classifications over and above the 17% of the national PA network (often on a scale of 20% more) without receiving actual financial compensation.

The absence of the economic profitability of big game hunting, confirming that consumptive management (and thus big game hunting) cannot generate sufficient income to conserve nature, does not make this management an adequate conservation tool for the future.

The solutions thus now involve the funding of public goods, which involves living animals, and not the development of conservation actions based on the commercialisation of dead animals.
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Trophy hunting in Africa is in decline, and no longer pays its way​


Posted on March 8, 2019 by Team Africa Geographic in the DECODING SCIENCE post series.

1614952457422.png


Big game hunter with his ivory trophies
In addendums to his IUCN report titled ‘Africa is changing: should its protected areas evolve? Reconfiguring the protected area in Africa’, wildlife vet and protected areas consultant Bertrand Chardonnet proposes that big game/trophy hunting is in a state of decline and is no longer able to pay for its ecological footprint, leading to poaching and habitat loss in hunting concessions.

Chardonnet’s proposal is against the background of the following three indicators:

1. The progressive disappearance of big game/trophy hunting zones due to farming activities linked to population growth. Countries such as Senegal, Niger, Chad, CAR, DR Congo, Sudan, Malawi and Angola have lost 90% of land formerly available to big game hunting. In contrast, countries such as Kenya, Gabon, Cote d’Ivoire and Botswana (subsequently changed) chose to close big game hunting.

Amongst countries still offering big game hunting, ecosystem degradation and decline of game species have led to the non-use of significant portions of former big game hunting areas – 72% in Tanzania and 40% in Zambia. In Tanzania, 110 out of 154 hunting zones have been abandoned because they are no longer profitable for big game/trophy hunting. This represents a surface area of 140,000 km2 or four times the size of Tanzania’s national parks.

2. The decrease in the number of shot animals

Tanzania is Africa’s leading country for big game hunting in unfenced areas, and yet the numbers of lions and elephants shot have plummeted over the last six years (see Figure 1 below).

Despite a six-year age limit on lions (only lions older than six years may be shot), in 2015 66,7% of the lions shot were five years old, or younger. Aside from the issue of the hunting of under-age lions, this statistic demonstrates the lack of suitable lions left to hunt.

Additionally, during that time the annual lion-hunting quota awarded by the Wildlife Divisions was 315 until 2015, and then 207 since 2016. This mismatch between available lions (as per Figure 1) and quotas was behind the reason certain Western countries controlled and even banned the imports of sport-hunted lion trophies.

Graph-001.jpg

Figure 1. Graph Evolution in the number of lions (left) shot each year in Tanzania, and trend lines (in red)
The dramatic surge in ivory poaching in Tanzania has led to the collapse of elephants available for hunting (Figure 1), as big game hunters target the same large-tusked individuals that poachers target. Taking into account the slow growth rate of tusks, it will take decades of protection with zero offtake before elephant hunting can recommence – a likely death-blow for the big game hunting industry in Tanzania. As was the case with lions, the awarded quotas were far more than what was available – with 200 elephants available on quota up to 2013 and 100 since 2014. The suspension of elephant trophy imports into the USA was only imposed in 2014 – far after the decline in available elephants and had little impact on the sustainability of the trophy hunting industry.

In northern Cameroon, the animals harvested per annum halved over the period 2008 to 2016, despite the same number of hunters.

3. The decrease in the number of hunters

The number of hunters in countries that provide trophy hunters to Africa has dropped dramatically. For example, in the USA, the number of hunters had fallen by 18.5% between 1991 and 2016, from 14,1 million to 11.5 million. In France, the drop was 50% in 40 years.

When it comes to big game hunters visiting African countries, the numbers are not as easy to access, but South Africa has seen a 60,5% drop in eight years, from 16,594 in 2008 to 6,539 in 2016. In 2018, the former president of the Tanzanian Hunting Operators Association said that lion and elephant hunts had dropped to a handful. Figure 2 below shows the reduction in foreign trophy hunters visiting that country.

Number-of-foreign-hunters-graph.jpg

Figure 2. Evolution in the number of foreign hunters in Namibia from 2007 to 2013
Let’s talk about money

The average spend in Tanzania by trophy hunting operators for anti-poaching efforts was US$0.18 per hectare per year – far off the current standards of US$7-8, and Kenyan Wildlife Service’s figure of US$14. By spending a mere 2% of the required amount, Tanzanian trophy hunters have not been able to maintain biodiversity in those areas. Total revenue generated by the 200,000 km2 of hunting areas in Tanzania is US$30 million per annum, whereas the conservation cost for that land, if done correctly, would be US$150 million per annum.

When it comes to contributions to local communities, the average trophy hunting operator in Tanzania spent US$0,08 per hectare per year, compared with tourism concessions in Kenya’s Maasai Mara paying US$40 per hectare per year – without counting the redistributions linked to entry fees and employee salaries.

Moreover, the amount collected from Tanzanian trophy hunting operators were not all used in Tanzania, as highlighted in the Panama Papers financial scandal, which underlined the poor governance of this sector.

A functional trophy hunting area would have a lion density of 2 per 100 km² and therefore requires about 5,000 km² (500,000 hectares) to shoot one lion per year, sustainably. The expected annual spend to keep poaching at bay for that land alone would be a minimum US$4 million (500,000 x US$8). This compares to the sales price of an average lion hunt of US$50,000 (the price paid for Cecil the Lion). In other words, the going rate for a lion is 2,5% of the cost to keep that lion area safe from poachers and habitat loss.

In South Africa Peter Flack, one of the leading defenders of hunting in 2018 wrote in his blog that after a 50% decrease in the number of foreign hunters in just a few years, many game farmers were killing their wild animals and replacing them with cattle, given the poor economic situation of the game farming sector. This follows the attempts to manipulate the wild, ethical character to keep these exploitations economically viable using artificial means, first of all through the hunting of lions kept in small enclosures (canned hunting), then through the genetic manipulation of ungulates to produce animals with different colours or larger trophies sought after by hunters. Condemnation of both practises has come from all corners, including groups of IUCN specialists, and the prices of these animals have now dropped to their lowest level. This leaves numerous game farms without real sources of income and thus without any means of funding their conservation.

Tourism versus big game/trophy hunting

In Kenya, tourism recorded a turnover of US$2.8 billion in 2017 for 429,500 direct jobs. Kenya does not permit big game/trophy hunting.

In neighbouring Tanzania, the figures were US$1,975 billion and 446 000 direct jobs off 57,800 km2 from tourism areas. By contrast, big game/trophy hunting in Tanzania generates US$30 million in revenue and creates 4,300 direct jobs – off 200,000 km2 of hunting areas.

In Botswana, tourism generated US$687 million in revenue in 2017 and created 26,000 direct jobs. By contrast, in 2014 (when big game/trophy hunting was banned) the trophy hunting industry generated under US$20 million in revenue and created 1,000 jobs.

In conclusion, big game/trophy hunting:

1. has seen a rapid decline in Africa over several years;
2. does not protect the natural habitat from habitat loss and poaching
3. can only finance a small percentage of the sum required for its conservation; and
4. does not provide sufficient socio-economic benefits.

Hunting used to be a conservation tool, but in the vast majority of cases it no longer plays this role and will not do so in the future either. Before many hunting zones are colonised, it is essential to recover part of some of them to improve the configuration of certain protected areas and, through this, nature conservation.

The absence of the economic profitability of big game/trophy hunting confirms that consumptive management cannot generate sufficient income to conserve nature. The solutions thus now involve the funding of public goods, which involves living animals, and not the development of conservation actions based on the commercialisation of dead animals.

To read Chardonnet’s report in this regard, refer to page 33 (Appendix 2) and page 37 (Appendix 3) of this document.

Decoding-Science-research.jpg
 

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PHOENIX PHIL

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So I don't suppose the U.S. ban on imports was taken into consideration in this "report" and it's impact on dwindling numbers of hunters. So naturally now that a clown like this gets that ban that he wanted and it's effect, it's now time to take the next natural step and ending hunting for good.

And just what does this asshat think will happen to those lands if hunting is ended and there's nothing but poachers and Chinese scavengers about?

Holy crap it's awfully early in the morning for me to get this spun up!
 

Randy F

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So I don't suppose the U.S. ban on imports was taken into consideration in this "report" and it's impact on dwindling numbers of hunters. So naturally now that a clown like this gets that ban that he wanted and it's effect, it's now time to take the next natural step and ending hunting for good.

And just what does this asshat think will happen to those lands if hunting is ended and there's nothing but poachers and Chinese scavengers about?

Holy crap it's awfully early in the morning for me to get this spun up!
He actually sites it as a reason the the western countries are/want to put import bans in place. :E Red Hot:

Sorry to get you wound up. ;) I guess that means I'm not the only one that understands it that way.
 

lwaters

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My guess hunting will return to Africa. I think my main worry is the US will continue to politicize the masks the vaccines and come up with more African variants when we are the most infected people in the world where is New York or the Texas variants. I think international travel will be challenging for 2021. We have an Alaskan tour scheduled for August. We won't go if we have to wear a mask everywhere. I'm not against it I just feel it would take away from my experience.
 

IvW

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Trust the french to come up with this bullsh.t....
Ask them how many elephant they want from Botswana for free to solve the overpopulation problem there....
Bunch of idiots.......

Politicians should stick to politics and stealing money and stay out of hunting.....
 

Newboomer

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Sounds pretty leftist to me. I think it's quite biased against hunting and conservation. There are other studies that contradict this negative malarkey. Scientific fact says many species numbers are on the rise thanks to hunting and management.
 

Scott CWO

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My guess hunting will return to Africa. I think my main worry is the US will continue to politicize the masks the vaccines and come up with more African variants when we are the most infected people in the world where is New York or the Texas variants. I think international travel will be challenging for 2021. We have an Alaskan tour scheduled for August. We won't go if we have to wear a mask everywhere. I'm not against it I just feel it would take away from my experience.
Alaskan state of emergency is over.
 

mark-hunter

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I think that to evaluate this question, it should be refrased by this:

How much revenue and jobs per acre or per hectar create high priced hunting in open free range Tanzania (or Mozambique, or Ethiopia,or Cameroon), or how much does game farming create by same measuring stick, on smaller private ranches of Namibia and South Africa?

(We, the informed hunters of this forum know the difference between these two systems)

So, the old adage "it it pays it stays" can be revaluated through this prism.
But my educated guess is... hmmm... it all points to game farming industry, as a win-win system.
And above should not be disregarded, ad hoc, just based on our emotional attitude. Number of hunters in US is in decline, and same is in Europe. So, numbers of international hunters are aslo in decline. And "sales" do suffer.
 
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Alaska Luke

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I don't have time or background knowledge to wade through it all but a few thoughts.

Some of the language sounds rather unprofessional as in pushing the reader toward a conclusion rather then simply stating facts. I just waded through some peer reviewed counseling papers and they are much more "just the fact." Now to be fair if the paper is an English translation that might explain things.

Second they seem to be saying that tourists spend more per acre than hunters. Okay so what? That seems like a very crude measurement that does not account for differences in local conditions.

Maybe the article does identify some real problems (or maybe not). However the existence of challenges to the hunting model does not automatically mean we must accept the no hunting alternative. That doesn't seem to be discussed much either.
 

Kevin Peacocke

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This is a very unbalanced view, needs push back.
Here are a few observations:
1. Hunting and tourism are not mutually exclusive, for example virtually no tourists visit the southern Selous where the hunting is, and no hunters hunt the Massai Mara.
2. The South African game farms are a business in dynamic balance with the number of customers. Of course that goes up and down. They are a vital part of the conservation equation and it is sad that they are sometimes criticised or under valued on this forum.
3. Yes, we need to encourage more new entrants to hunting, but also encourage existing hunters to come and hunt more. Covid snookered things, but it is now an inconvenience, not a barrier.
4. We need a strong voice, DSC and SCI are doing something and need more of our support. Forgive me if I am wrong, but I sometimes detect resentment against them from our number. That is a direct shot in the foot, totally unhelpful to the cause.
 

mark-hunter

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On point 1: Agreed

On point 2: Agreed

On point 3: Encouriging international hunters to hunt more, is questionable. Expensive hunts in several countires make this financially possible for maybe less then 1% of western population, much less from global population. Average western country will have maybe 1-3% of population to be hunters at all, and then out of these, very few can afford hunting in Africa. So numbers of international hunters visitn Africa, is really a small numbers.
For African hunting to be selfsustainable - local population must have their financial interest in it and/or be grown to be hunters and conservationists. Or both. If local population is not part of equation, it cannot be selfsustainable. This is very big subject, which covers cultural, financial, and various social differences.

On point 4:
Agreed, partially - if I am to be member which I am not. There is no DSC or SCI chapter anywhere in my vicinity. They are not the voice of all international hunters and conservationists. But I do support idea DSC and SCI to open chapters in remote countries, as much as possible.
 

Kevin Peacocke

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On point 1: Agreed

On point 2: Agreed

On point 3: Encouriging international hunters to hunt more, is questionable. Expensive hunts in several countires make this financially possible for maybe less then 1% of western population, much less from global population. Average western country will have maybe 1-3% of population to be hunters at all, and then out of these, very few can afford hunting in Africa. So numbers of international hunters visitn Africa, is really a small numbers.
For African hunting to be selfsustainable - local population must have their financial interest in it and/or be grown to be hunters and conservationists. Or both. If local population is not part of equation, it cannot be selfsustainable. This is very big subject, which covers cultural, financial, and various social differences.

On point 4:
Agreed, partially - if I am to be member which I am not. There is no DSC or SCI chapter anywhere in my vicinity. They are not the voice of all international hunters and conservationists. But I do support idea DSC and SCI to open chapters in remote countries, as much as possible.
before I pop my clogs Mark I am going to do what I can to involve the local population in sport hunting. Campfire did a huge amount to reward the local communities, in part with cash fees, but more importantly with meat. I see Mozambique has a similar programme.
 

mark-hunter

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I know about campfire, so far has shown succesful.

The question, is this: In last 100 and more years conservation and hunting is carved into essence of western hunting. (All European countries are hunting countries, all North american countries and US states are hunting countries, and succesful conservation programs are there)

How to plant idea of conservation with average african, continent wide, indegenous population?

Is there such idea about conservation trhogh hunting, game managemnt and return to habbitat, in countries like Kenya - but not as idea imposed by goverment (which in Kenya is non-existent), but idea coming out of indigeanous people, from the ground?, Or does that as usual comes from white minority? That is the true challenge, to involve local people.
And in my view, in ever changing World on the expense of wildlife, the only possible solution is education, which in itself is the challenge greatest of all, especially in rural Africa.

Roughly, at this moment 50% of African countries are non huntable, with serious consequnces to willife population.
 

1dirthawker

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another thought,

some of the "data years", are they cherry picked? nothing real recent, like when trump was president. and as stated above, look at the source, makes me suspect right off the bat.
 

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