.318 Westley Richards

AfricaHunting.com

Founder
AH ambassador
Joined
Oct 1, 2007
Messages
11,295
Reaction score
5,772
Website
AfricaHunting.com
Media
5,580
Articles
320
.318 Westley Richards
by Charlie Haley

The .318 Westley Richards is a real old African classic. Largely forgotten today, it was one of the most important of the pre-war sporting calibres. Never, of course, so widely used as the cheap and ubiquitous .303, it was nonetheless one of the most popular of what was termed the 'medium' bore sporting cartridges in the Africa of years ago. It was and still remains a fine choice for the Africa of today.

watermark.php

From left to right: .318 WR, .333 Jeffery, .30-06

The .318 was introduced in 1910, and was intended for Westley Richards sporting rifles with the comparatively new Model '98 Mauser action. This action and rifle was taking the world by storm, and it seemed that anyone who desired to advance himself in the eyes of his peers had to have one of these rifles; even the British army was in the process of trying to dump its Lee-Enfield .303 and adopt a Mauserderivative, along with most of the rest of the world. That they didn't actually manage to loose the Lee-Enfield for another 40 odd years is another story entirely. Suffice to say that a Mauser '98 sporter was the absolute sine qua non of the up-to-the-minute sporting gent, and here it was in a calibre bigger, better and more powerful than the .303. This was the objective all along, of course the .303 with its jacketed bullets and smokeless powder was an absolute revelation compared to black powder and lead bullets, but it quickly became evident that the old .303 was somewhat lacking in some respects, particularly against the heavier soft-skinned species. Furthermore, its rimmed case was an absolute pain in the nether regions when it came to reliable feeding in the later Mauser actions. Well, here was the answer, and the sportsmen of the day adopted it en masse.

The .318 uses a cartridge very similar (in fact, almost identical to) the American .30-06, and in fact it is quite feasible to make .318 cases from .30-06brass. The bullet is of considerably greater frontal area, however, and of a very useful greater weight. Actual bullet diameter is a somewhat confusing .330”, rather than .318 as the title suggests. This comes of the old British habit of commonly (but by no means universally) naming the cartridge by bore rather than groove diameter. The most common bullet weight was 250 grains at a listed speed of 2400 fps, which was by far the most effective and useful combination. A lightweight 180 grainer was offered at an alleged 2700 fps, but proved almost invariably to be a disappointment against all but the lighter species of game. Most of the British gunmakers of that era brought out lightweight bullets at high speed for their bolt-action rifles, so do not think that the Americans alone are guilty of a desire for velocity at all costs! My advice is to stick to the heavier bullet weight; it is more generally useful in Africa, has greater sectional density and most rifles will be sighted for it anyhow.

As stated, the .318 quickly becameimmensely popular in Africa. The 250 grain soft nosed bullets proved extremely effective and penetrative on game, while the solids if properly placed could down an elephant with a brain shot. W. D. M. ('Karamojo') Bell, one of the greatest of the old ivory hunters, used the .318 extensively. Indeed, from my readings, it seems as though he used the .318 at least as much (if not more) than the Rigby 7mm/.275 that he is most famed for using. HOWEVER justbecause Bell shot thousands of elephant with the .318 (and calibres like it), and lived to die of old age, does NOT make the .318 an elephant gun! This was a partial explanation for the eventual downfall of the .318. It became very popular extremely quickly, and is certainly one of those well balanced cartridges that performs out of all proportion to its size and paper ballistics. It was so effective that hunters started to use it against large, thick-skinned, dangerous game animals for which it was never intended. Well placed it would do the trick, but it was found wanting when things went wrong and a charge had to be stopped. Westley Richards themselves would tell you that the .318 was not designed for such stunts; that is what they designed their .425 for, and they would happily sell you one for hunting the big stuff that bit back. Hunters still used their .318's for dangerous game, though, and continued to be knocked about accordingly at times. A certain backlash was inevitable, but the .318 was still so splendidly effective against soft- skinned game that the process was more of a placing of things into perspective. Good as the .318 was, it became recognised that it did in fact have limitations after all, and that one would be well advised to take at least a .375 against the more malevolent species.

Part of the reputation for effectiveness of the .318 was unquestionably due to its being available with some of the bestbullets of the era. Being a Westley Richards calibre, the .318 could be had with soft capped bullets for expansion combined with deep penetration or the LT capped for maximum violent expansion with more limited penetration. Both bullet styles were exclusive to Westley Richards, and were certainly the premium soft noses of their day. I have only heard of one complaint regarding the .318 soft nosed bullets, and that was by a hunter who turned out to be using the light, speedy 180 grainers. He had heard so much about the awesome penetration of the .318, and couldn't understand why he wasn't achieving the same! One other potential problem; both the Westley Richards capped soft point designs superficially resembled solids, and if a shooter who wasn't in the know used a capped soft thinking it was a solid, then disappointment was sure to result.

Rifles chambered for the .318 were, of course, mainly made by Westley Richards on the Mauser action, but this was by no means universal. I have seen a few built upon modified Enfield P-14 actions, or more likely the outwardly identical American P-17. It would be a great deal easier to achieve satisfactory fit and feed for the .318 in an American .30-06 action than the British .303! Although the .318 is normally regarded as a proprietary cartridge (that is, normally only offered by the firm that introduced it), the .318 achieved such popularity that I would regard it as semi-proprietary at best. Mauser offered their 'A' grade rifle in .318 calibre, I once owned a Mauser actioned .318 sporter built by Greener, and recently examined a delightful little take-down .318 rifle by Thomas Bland (called 'The Compactum')! I have heard of a double rifle in .318 calibre (by Holland & Holland, no less) and while I have never seen one, I am certain that there must have been single shot rifles chambered for the .318 (rimless cartridge notwithstanding). There is no doubt that in the sporting fields of Africa during the 1920's and 1930's, a .318 was de rigueur for the knowledgeable hunter. It could be had in standard or take-down configuration from Westley Richards, with standard barrel lengths tending to be on the long side. Most oddly, a lot of .318's from Westley Richards had Metford style rifling. This of course led to worn and eroded bores after a lot of firing with Cordite ammunition. However, when peering down the bore of a .318, don't immediately write it off as irretrievably worn Metford rifling appears shallow and washed out in comparison to conventional lands and grooves, and it may shoot just fine. The .318's main competitor was the .333 Jeffries, also built on the Mauser action and firing a phenomenally long 300 grain bullet at a velocity of 2200 fps. This bullet gained an excellent reputation, and I have heard and read much concerning the popularity of this calibre in Africa. However, while I have examined a great many old .318 rifles, I have yet to even see a .333! It is my considered opinion that .318 rifles outnumbered .333's by a considerable margin in southern Africa.

With all the plaudits and popularity, it seemed that the .318's star would never set. However, World War Two intervened. Afterwards, it would take some years for the British gunmakers to resume sporting rifle manufacture. When they did, it was to find that the hunting fields of the world were now mainly the preserve of the American sportsman. These new nimrods, not unnaturally, wanted American rifles and calibres, and few of them had even heard of the .318. Winchester countered with their excellent .338 Magnum, which is somewhat more powerful than the .318 (which was all to the good as far as the American market went), and all this served to drive the .318 into rapid obscurity. A further clue as to the .318's demise can be gathered by a quick perusal of a 1954 Gun Digest. Westley Richards rifles are catalogued therein, available in various British calibres (including the .318) at a listed price of $400. No doubt it would have to be specially ordered, with the requisite waiting period to consider. In the same publication, however, is the adored Winchester Model 70 in a variety of American calibres, for a mere $120! Even a Super Grade Model '70 with selected walnut stock was only $195.45. Furthermore, .30-06 ammunition was half the price of .318, and a lot more available too. The old British gunmakers, without mass production and with a minimal domestic market, couldn't compete with the American makers as far as cost went. Furthermore, the British rifles were not what the American sportsman wanted at the time. The Brit rifles were hard to 'scope, and telescopic sights were in. Lightweight spitzer bullets at sizzling velocities were gaining popularity, and the English offerings with heavy, round-nosed bullets at moderate speed were out. Eventually Kynoch stopped production of virtually all the old British sporting rifle rounds, and that appeared to be the end of the .318.

Not quite, though. Ironically enough, it was the rifle-conscious Americans who led the revival, and more power to them. Tiring of the magnum craze and the glitzy rifles that went with it, the American sportsman became enamoured of classic cartridges and rifles. The effectiveness of heavy bullets at moderate speed was also re- discovered, and this all coincided with an old-time African hunting revival. Pre-war British rifles found themselves back in style again. A .318 became very much the thing to have, and a fair number of them had ended up in America over the years. Those which had escaped re-barreling were eagerly snapped up, and the Americans, being innovative as well as inveterate reloaders, did not long want for ammunition. Cases could be formed from readily available .30-06 brass, and makers of reloading dies would make whatever one wanted, but bullets continued to be a vexation. The smaller makers of custom bullets would oblige, of course, and .338 bullets could be swaged or ground to size, but the manufacturer who saved the day was Woodleigh of Australia. With impeccable timing, Woodleigh offered a whole range of bullets for a great many of the older British sporting rifles, including the .318. Furthermore, these bullets were of premium quality, taking advantage of all the benefits of modern technology. Bertrams, also of Australia, produce a similar line of high quality, properly headstamped brass cases for obsolete firearms again, included in the line up is the .318. The recently resuscitated line of Kynoch ammunition includes the .318 as well as most of the other old British sporting calibres, and, best of all, perusal of a recent catalogue showed that .318 rifles are once more available from Westley Richards! This splendid old calibre appears to be going from strength to strength, which just goes to prove that while shooting attitudes and fashions change, calibres remain as effective as they always were.
 
Last edited by a moderator:

Red Leg

Lifetime bronze benefactor
AH ambassador
Joined
May 19, 2009
Messages
6,230
Reaction score
17,309
Location
Texas Hill Country
Media
271
Articles
5
Hunting reports
Africa
2
USA/Canada
4
Mex/S.Amer
1
Europe
3
Member of
SCI DSC life memberships / NRA Patron Life
Hunted
Mexico, Namibia, RSA, Germany, Austria, Argentina, Canada, Mozambique, Spain, US (15 states)
Great article. By American measurements, the .318 is in fact a .338 and behaves much like the .338/06 wildcat which does most things a .338 win mag will withought the fuss and bother. My Westley Richards built mauser is a very plain rifle. I added warne bases and mounts and had a little work done to the handle to allow scope clearance. It is of typically austere British styling with the minimum necessary stock and little decoration. Sights are outstanding with both a flip up peep on the striker and "night" beed up front. Mine groups 250 gr sp and solid Kynochs into the same 1.5 inch cluster. Just a wonderful rifle and caliber.
 

Oldsarge

AH member
Joined
Jul 11, 2010
Messages
15
Reaction score
8
Member of
NRA, SCI
Hunted
Mozambique, RSA, Zimbabwe
Gosh, Charlie, I own a .318 by Greener. Did by any chance you sell yours to Kynoch? I bought mine from them. It would be most pleasing if it turned out to be the same rifle.
 

Odinsraven

AH fanatic
Joined
May 25, 2013
Messages
663
Reaction score
644
Location
Iceland
Media
11
Hunting reports
Africa
5
Member of
NRA Life Membe,Icelandic Hunting Club SKOTVIS , BASC (UK) Countryside Alliance (UK)r
Hunted
UK ,Ireland, Bulgaria,Iceland,Czech Republic
Have a german bsw shul in 318 wr a double. Just took a cull Kudu bull with it when down with Richard holmes safari on the eastern Cape ...perfect performance bull pulled up after 50m .......on a frontal shot
 

Steve Steyr

AH veteran
Joined
May 7, 2014
Messages
142
Reaction score
83
Media
4
Not to be contentious but Bell stated he shot over 1000 elephants with the .275 Rigby, not the .318 WR. He liked the .318 but his ammo was bad so he used it up shooting ducks on the wing while on vacation on an island on Lake Victoria.
Also, Bell was a very good businessman and very thrifty. His .275 ammo was less costly than .318 WR ammo.
He also preferred the .275 Rigby as he thought it made less noise and, thus, disrupted the elephant herds less than heavier, noisier calibers.
Also, he stated he would have preferred using his MS 1903 6.5x54 on elephants. He loved his light (under 6#s) MS but his rifle had a generous chamber (welcome to the club, Walter!) or the brass was faulty and he had case separations at very inopportune times.
All in all, though, he recorded he had the best luck with the .275 Rigby and preferred it over all else.
 
D

Deleted member 15212

I have one of those rounds in my collection.. I don't know where it even came from.
 

Von Gruff

Gold supporter
AH legend
Joined
May 5, 2009
Messages
3,986
Reaction score
5,953
Location
south Otago, New Zealand
Website
www.vongruffknives.com
Media
1,613
Articles
3
Hunting reports
Australia/NZ
3
Hunted
New Zealand, Austaralia
I have one of those rounds in my collection.. I don't know where it even came from.

I have one as well as quite a few others, that I would have liked to a rifle chambered for and to take hunting.
 
Last edited by a moderator:

Jcordell

AH member
Joined
Jun 23, 2015
Messages
35
Reaction score
78
Location
Idaho
Media
6
Member of
National Rifleman Association, DAV
Very interesting article. I had never heard of the .318 until I read "Something of Value" a few years ago. It got me curious. I have a friend who likes to hunt elk and moose here in Idaho and Montana. He's fond of the classic loads and rifles. Wonder if I should set him looking for a .318 Mauser Type A Sporter? He's a successful veterinarian so he has a larger income than me. Could be fun watching him go for it. Well anyway very interesting article.
 

Clayton

AH fanatic
Joined
Mar 29, 2016
Messages
841
Reaction score
733
Location
SW Louisiana, USA
Member of
NRA: Patriot Life Endowment Member, 2nd Amendment Foundation: Life Member LA Shooting Association: Life Member, Gun Owners of America: Annual Member SW LA Rifle & Pistol Club: Annual Member
I really appreciate you posting this. I can re-read things like this over & over.
 

Odinsraven

AH fanatic
Joined
May 25, 2013
Messages
663
Reaction score
644
Location
Iceland
Media
11
Hunting reports
Africa
5
Member of
NRA Life Membe,Icelandic Hunting Club SKOTVIS , BASC (UK) Countryside Alliance (UK)r
Hunted
UK ,Ireland, Bulgaria,Iceland,Czech Republic
Have some 318wr projects in the pipeline

One is a savage stainless modern plastic stock etc chambered for 318wr ....

The other is to restore a 1908 WR 318 by WR back to its former glory ....

I have also a 318wr double by BSW Shul in Germany .........I need help ........
 

Pondoro

AH fanatic
Joined
Dec 3, 2014
Messages
892
Reaction score
1,144
Media
88
Articles
1
Hunted
Norway, Sweden, Namibia and Botswana
Some years ago I looked at a lovely Westley Richards double in .318....one of their gold name models...it looked like new on the outside and came in its oak and leather case, but alas.....both barrels were completely shot out...!

I have never seen such worn barrels in a double, sooner or later..
 

Odinsraven

AH fanatic
Joined
May 25, 2013
Messages
663
Reaction score
644
Location
Iceland
Media
11
Hunting reports
Africa
5
Member of
NRA Life Membe,Icelandic Hunting Club SKOTVIS , BASC (UK) Countryside Alliance (UK)r
Hunted
UK ,Ireland, Bulgaria,Iceland,Czech Republic
Pe
Some years ago I looked at a lovely Westley Richards double in .318....one of their gold name models...it looked like new on the outside and came in its oak and leather case, but alas.....both barrels were completely shot out...!

I have never seen such worn barrels in a double, sooner or later..
Perhaps cordite eating away at the barrels ? Or someone who had a whole lot of hunting fun.
 

CAustin

Bronze supporter
AH ambassador
Joined
May 7, 2013
Messages
14,356
Reaction score
11,573
Media
258
Hunting reports
Africa
7
Member of
Courtney Hunting Club, NRA Life Member, SCI Kansas City Chapter
Hunted
South Africa, KwaZulu Natal, Kalahari, Northwest, Limpopo, Gauteng, APNR Kruger Area. USA Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas, New Mexico, North Carolina and Texas
CT I have honestly never seen a worn out barrel. I guess I've never been around someone who shoots that much. I've heard members of the military speaking of weapons with worn out barrels and replacing them.

I guess it takes a lot of rounds, 1000s to do it.
 

CAustin

Bronze supporter
AH ambassador
Joined
May 7, 2013
Messages
14,356
Reaction score
11,573
Media
258
Hunting reports
Africa
7
Member of
Courtney Hunting Club, NRA Life Member, SCI Kansas City Chapter
Hunted
South Africa, KwaZulu Natal, Kalahari, Northwest, Limpopo, Gauteng, APNR Kruger Area. USA Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas, New Mexico, North Carolina and Texas

The Bongo

AH member
Joined
Jul 27, 2015
Messages
35
Reaction score
16
Location
UK
Member of
BASC, NOBS, SACS
Hunted
UK, Bulgaria, Italy
Excellent read. I hope the revival of this classic calibre continues.

On the subject of corrosive primers, the need to use hot water is the downfall of many a gun in modern hands. We get so used to trying to keep everything dry that not enough water is used when cleaning. A good slosh out followed by conventional cleaning and suitable oiling is required. Treat old rounds like black powder and you will not go far wrong.
 

Forum statistics

Threads
36,698
Messages
695,498
Members
64,399
Latest member
masturbaza
 

 

 

Latest posts

Latest profile posts

Rifle57 wrote on Rimshot's profile.
I bought some bullets from Rimshot and he is good to trade with!
Greetings all! I've been a hunter for 50 years, but only now planning a trip to Africa. I was fortunate and successfully bid on a couple hunts for plains game in SA later this year and next. Also a rare Native Texas (5th generation) and USMC Vet. Hunt safe y'all!
uujm wrote on trg's profile.
I am looking for a Safari Express. Was yours made in New Haven or South Carolina? Any other details you can give me? I am very motivated to buy.
pimes wrote on flatwater bill's profile.
Hello Bill - can you tell me that landowner/ranch/outfitter - Thank you!
Pete0905 wrote on damundsen87's profile.
Hello
Is the Khales 1-6 still for sale?
Thanks
Josh
 
Top