Judging Cape Buffalo

Discussion in 'Judging Trophies' started by Buff, Mar 1, 2009.

  1. Buff

    Buff New Member

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    How do you tell a good Cape Buffalo from a great one?
  2. jaustin

    jaustin AH Veteran

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    There are a lot of PH's that answer questions on this site, but I'll throw my two cents worth in. I have only seen a hundred or so buffalo but a common way is to use the ears to measure the spread. If a buffalo is looking at you with his ears spread out and his horns are even with his ears you are probably looking at a 34-36 inch buff. You can estimate if they are past his ears from there. Spread is just one criteria, solid hard bosses are more important to me than spread. Buffalo horns are unique in the fact that they are all different, some bulls hook way back, some bulls have deep drop, some bulls have wide flat horns. A great bull is one that you hunted hard and made quick one shot kill. If you are hunting buffalo you will have a pro with you to judge trophy quality and most of these guys are pretty darn good at it. Just make sure they know what you are looking for and then trust their judgement when it's time to shoot.
  3. Daretobowhunt

    Daretobowhunt AH Member

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    Buff, I would personaly prefer a hard boss 35' buff over a 40' with soft boss, but yes, level with the ears is in the 35\36' range. 'Hard boss' buffs are not so plentiful in SA as it they use to be, but getting 35' will be average,39' very good and over 40' excellent. When is your hunt?
    Last edited: Mar 2, 2009
  4. Shallom

    Shallom AH Enthusiast

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    Some good input on this topic and one that i always enjoy discussing... I have guided and hunted over 500 buffalo in Tanzania and confirm that each trophy is unique. I was brought up hunting old animals and from a very early age have instinctively judged every animal on wear & tear before judging size. Nothing like taking an old animal and working for it. They rarely come easy and as the saying goes - its the clever ones that grow old.

    A good buff is an old buff - no two ways about it! A professional hunter should easily judge this from the boss and other factors such as body development, penis sheath, hanging testicles, posture etc. The important part of buffalo hunting is getting as close as possible so that you can make clear judgment and also have a clear shot.

    It is crucial to assess the animal from the side and the front as angles can play tricks on anyone. A fully developed boss is a clearly visible feature of a bull and if you are familiar with buffalo hunting, easy to establish. Some are older than others, but the key is to avoid undeveloped bossed bulls as they are almost certainly still breeding bulls and part of a herd, even if not with one at the time.

    Spread is judged mainly by the method explained by Jaustin. But in some genetic pools, like northern Tanzania, the buffalo are much more massive and therefore could be judged smaller than they actually are (which cannot be a bad thing). If the spread of the horn is a hand-width from the tip of the ear, then you can safely assume it is in the 40" bracket and any more than that, why wonder - get a good shot in!!!

    I admire hunters who seek exceptional trophies and encourage the practice, but in my books, a young animal, unless harvested for special reasons, is no exceptional trophy. Stay true to ethical hunting and let the young ones develop to their full potential while keeping the population sustainable. Judge your hunting before your potential trophy.

    Buff... where are you headed for your buffalo and will you be bow hunting? Cheers.
  5. AfricaHunting.com

    AfricaHunting.com FOUNDER AH Ambassador

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    Ryan, wow an exceptional post! Thanks for sharing your well earned and vast knowledge on the subject, I could not agree with you more. I found this post to be article worthy, so I posted it in the article section as well (see it here). This is what the site is all about, thanks to everyone for the your contribution and great discussion.
  6. Skyline

    Skyline AH Fanatic

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    Yes, that was an excellent post Ryan. I truly hope that more hunters eventually come to the realization that a true 'trophy' is not necessarily an animal that makes the 'book' or scores high enough to earn a silver or gold medal. As hunters we should be encouraging everyone to hunt in a manner that is ethical and in the best interests of the species we are hunting. I could not agree with you more.
  7. Shallom

    Shallom AH Enthusiast

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    Am glad you guys are with me on the hunting ethics... thanks for acknowledging and appreciating my views on Buffalo hunting. The next step would be to join me on the trail of an old dugga boy here in Tanzania. Hunting any wild game is a thrill and adventure. But there is something about the Cape Buffalo that just stands out and makes it a unique experience. It is not a hunt above the rest, as all dangerous game hunts are special, but the Buffalo is game that a real hunter never tires of pursuing and no two hunts for this great animal are the same. The fact that it is a species that is in abundance also adds to the experience, knowing you can meet the challenge again and again. Lion/Leopard/Elephant/Rhino are mostly once in a lifetime hunts - but the Buffalo is a lifelong hunt. Even getting lucky with a 50" trophy will not exhaust your thirst for another buffalo hunt. Buffalo hunting is an incurable fever. Karibu Tanzania.
  8. Safari Chick

    Safari Chick AH Veteran

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    Ryan, you have quite the way with words and Cape Buffalo apparently....500 that's amazing! I'm already thinking of my next safari even though I have yet to complete my first (2010)! I'm thinking that my next safari will be for something awesome like a big, bad buff, but I certainly would only be interested in a "clever one" as you so eloquently put it... like the one you posted in the photo gallery...very clever and very old. By the way why do they call them old dugga boys?
  9. Skyline

    Skyline AH Fanatic

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    Safari Chick...................the old bulls and small groups of the bachelor boys like to wallow in the mud. Dugga (dagga) means mud and hence...........dugga boys. Interestingly enough Dagga in South Africa is also a word used for cannabis.
  10. Shallom

    Shallom AH Enthusiast

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    Safari Chick... as explained by Skyline, DUGGA is a southern african name that has stuck on cape buffalo hunting throughout the continent. DAGGA is also from down south and has many variations worldwide, but applies to more than just cape buffalo : ) In Tanzania, the word is KUFFI and is swahili for bachelor buffalo bulls. The number is probably way over 500, but i have never kept a record and many of my hunting friends and guests beat me down for that, but keeping diaries has never been my thing. The estimate comes from hunting professionally for 16 years, with an average of 20 guided bulls a season and 10 personal bulls per year, with numerous bulls 8 years before starting off professionally. Somewhere in there they will add up...
  11. Shallom

    Shallom AH Enthusiast

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    Safari Chick... as we say at Wild Footprints - BIG,BOLD & OLD. The cape buffalo hunt is a dream that can be easily realised with us here in Tanzania and we have specialised in this for over 20 years, with probably the only 100% buffalo hunting record in the field. The clever ones usually get away, but the hunter who puts-in the work usually gets his/her worth. Sometimes the dumb ones are pretty gifted trophies too : ) Karibu Tanzania!!!
  12. Ray Atkinson

    Ray Atkinson AH Enthusiast

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    Judging Buffalo

    I have never had to actually judge a buffalo or a Mule Deer, when I see a really big boy, I just know if he is the one, but I have hunted for many years and shot quite a number of both..

    To me a world class bull needs a lot more than spread... I want drop, mass, huge hard bosses that are not ridged so much as worn smooth from years of polishing on trees and whatever... I want character, scars, battered ears, tail chewed off, all those things that designate him a true warrior and not meant to die by starving to death or eaten alive by Lions. I want him to chose how he will die and by being hunted he has that option.

    The old bull on the front page of my web page was such a bull, the one best animal that I have ever shot and he was a brave old boy who gave no quarter.
  13. Die Ou Jagter

    Die Ou Jagter AH Member

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    Ray, good to locate you again.
  14. Frederik

    Frederik AH Enthusiast

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    Some nice buffalo pictures for everybody. But before you look at them, for me buffalo is not how wide, how deep or how big the boss is but the character you can have your name in a book and I can bet you unless youre in top 10 no one will ever pick up your name. Or you could have hunted hard and bagged the most ugliest bufallo with one horn and people who see it on your wall will ask for the story no matter if they hunt or not.

    This is my take on bufalo.

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  15. Ray Atkinson

    Ray Atkinson AH Enthusiast

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    There are trophy bulls and their are bulls that are not of trophy class but qualify as great bulls..

    When judging a trophy bull I first look at the boss, I don't particularly want it Knarly as many do, but prefer one that is huge and smooth as marble from years of rubbing..I want a LOTof drop in the curl and that drop should extend below the jaw. I want spread, but spread without drop is not for me, it looks more like a long horn steer than a Cape buffalo bull IMO..

    Last but not least is character, I want him old, grey in the muzzle, scarred from years of fighting, a real old curmurdgeon, tail chewed off by lions at some point in his hard life, a broken horn does not bother me, lion scars on his shoulder and a look in his eye that tells me he is an old mean bastard and if he has character I can pass on all the rest..

    One thing I know for sure, the minute I see him, I don't have to judge him, I know if he is shootable.

    I have hunted many buffalo over the years, I culled them early on, and it is my hunting passion, no other animal intrigues me like the black bulls do. In fact in my curmudgeon stage of life, I don't really like to hunt any other animal except Mule Deer behind my house with my grandson.
  16. Ray Atkinson

    Ray Atkinson AH Enthusiast

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    Judging buffalo

    Oops, sorry for a second post, apparantly I had previously posted on the subject some months ago...:)

    Oh well, maybe someone missed the first one..

    Hello die and how have you been, good to hear from you..
  17. AfricaHunting.com

    AfricaHunting.com FOUNDER AH Ambassador

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    Cape Buffalo: Is the SCI Trophy Scoring System Wrong?

    Here below is an article called Cape Buffalo: Is the SCI Trophy Scoring System Wrong? posted by AFRICAN INDABA in the Hunting Stories & Articles section of AH.

    Cape Buffalo: Is the SCI Trophy Scoring System Wrong?
    by Dr. Kevin Robertson, South Africa

    There can be no doubt. Syncerus caffer caffer, the Southern buffalo is by far Africa’s most popular dangerous trophy game species. In fact, the demand for sport-hunting these formidable black bovines seems almost insatiable. So much so that most reputable safari operators offering buffalo are sold out years in advance. Buffalo hunting is not cheap. Even for a two on one hunt (this is two hunters with one PH), a hunter can expect to pay at least $10,000 for the experience of securing a representative trophy. When spending this amount of money, it is perfectly understandable that hunters ‘want a good one’, that will ‘make it into the record book’.

    Two well-known trophy recording systems exist. These are SCI Record of Trophy Animals, and the British originated system of Rowland Ward and their Records of Big Game. But with Americans representing approximately 80 % of the sport-hunters who visit Africa, the SCI system is by far the most popular. In fact it is these sportsmen who practically drive the whole African safari industry and one has only to visit Reno, for SCI’s annual convention to realize just how vast this aspect really is.

    SCI is a huge, well-run organization and most Americans who desire to hunt in Africa are members. SCI has its own unique scoring system and with regards to Syncerus caffer caffer, the current SCI scoring method follows the white line depicted in the photo below.

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    Photo 1: SCI Scoring System Measurements (white lines).

    The length along the outside of the horn curl, from tip to tip, plus the straight-line width measurement of both bosses for a combined total score in inches. 100 inches is needed to qualify for record book entry.

    The Rowland Ward system is different in that it measures the greatest outside spread only, and 42 inches in the current requirement for record book entry.

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    Photo 2: Rowland Ward Scoring System – Approx. 8 Yrs old bull. The boss is just about solid, and horn tips have dropped to boss level.

    The current SCI scoring system exerts a tremendous influence on the type and consequently the ages of buffalo that are sport-hunted for trophy purposes. This is my opinion and also that of many PH’s and safari operators, Here are the facts:.

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    Photo 3: Buffalo Bull 5 to 6 Yrs - Forehead still hairy and the horn tips are still sharp and sticking up above boss level.

    Bull buffalo are sexually mature at approximately 5 to 6 years old. By this age, the horn tips are sharp and they will usually stick up well above the level of the forehead. The forehead will still be covered with course, spares hair. There will be no boss per se and PH’s will refer to this bull as being ‘green’. Bull buffalo fight for the right to breed. Such occasions are ‘push and shove’, ‘test of strength’, affairs.

    The object of the exercise is simply to determine which bull is physically the stronger. Bulls do not try to kill each other on such occasions simply because mature buffalo bulls play a very necessary roll in the defense of the herd from lions.

    Because such fights involve head clashing, a bull buffalo needs a hard or almost completely solid boss to enable it to compete effectively. The horn tips on such occasions are not used, and those which stick up above boss level are actually a disadvantage.

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    Photo 4: Buffalo Bull approx. 8 Yrs. The boss is just about solid, and horn tips have dropped to boss level.

    Buffalo bulls are usually old big and strong enough physically to challenge for the right to breed by their 8th year. By that age, their bosses will be sufficiently hard enough for them to head bash, while their horn tips will usually have dropped to or below boss level.

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    Photo 5: Approx. 10 Yrs old breeding bull. Boss completely solid, horn tips well below boss level.

    The peak breeding age for a buffalo bulls is their 9th and 10th years. Sometime in their 11th year, breeding bulls will usually be replaced by younger, stronger and fitter individuals.

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    Photo 6: An exceptional, approximately 11Yrs old solid bossed buffalo bull.

    Horn rubbing is an important part of dominant, breeding bull behavior. This wears the horn tips down. While not so important with regards to the Rowland Ward system of measurement, this practice, together with the fact that the horn tips drop as the bull matures, has a significant influence on a bull’s SCI measurement. In a nutshell, a bull, regardless of his initial horn size, will score less and ever less on the SCI system of measurement as he matures and progressed from a pre-breeding through to a breeding and then to a post-breeding bull. As I see it, this is the primary flaw with this measuring system.

    The current top ranking SCI bull, and the current no’s 5, 10 and 17 were all pre-breeding, 6 to 7 year old bulls at the time they were collected.

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    Photo 7: Current Number 1 SCI – The bull is soft bossed. A number of independent buffalo authorities have aged this bull to be 7 years old. The chances that he got to breed before being shot are remote.

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    Photo 8: Current SCI Number 5 is of a similar age.

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    Photo 9: Current SCI Number 10 is also a really young, pre-breeding soft-bossed bull.

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    Photo 10: This exceptional 6 year old bull was the SCI no. 1. It now ranks no. 17. What a pity it never got to breed as it truly was a magnificent specimen.

    One does not have to be Einstein to realize the long term effect of shooting genetically superior specimens before they have a chance to pass on their genes, and already this is becoming evident. Average trophy size in those countries where Southern buffalo are regularly hunted is dropping, and quickly. It is my belief that this is a direct result of this simple fact. A scoring system which places more emphasis on a bull’s boss development and encourages the shooting of old, post breeding-age bulls needs to be implemented, and the sooner the better. (At this point in time, one of the suggestions for a new method is to use the Rowland Ward, straight-line method, and add the ‘over the top’ measurement of both bosses for a final score.)

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    Photo 11: This is a mature huntable Bull.

    A scoring system which encourages the shooting of bulls like shown on photo 11 and leaves those like the one on photo 12 to breed, needs to be developed and implemented. I voiced my concerns on this matter in my first buffalo book, ‘Nyati’. Unfortunately, my requests for a revision of the SCI scoring system went unheard.

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    Photo 12: This Bull should be left alone.

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    The Hunting Stories & Articles section of AH has lots of great stories and articles with valuable information, click here to check out this section.
  18. AfricaHunting.com

    AfricaHunting.com FOUNDER AH Ambassador

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    The Influence of Trophy Measurement in Cape Buffalo

    Here below is another article called The Influence of Trophy Measurement in Cape Buffalo posted by AFRICAN INDABA in the Hunting Stories & Articles section of AH.

    The Influence of Trophy Measurement in Cape Buffalo
    by Winston Taylor, Environmental Biology, Oxford Brookes University

    Editor’s Note: Winston Taylor’s scientific paper (Full Title: The Influence of Trophy Measurement on the Age of Sport Hunted Buffalo, Syncerus Caffer (Sparrman), in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, and its Implications for Sustainable Trophy Hunting, 2005) has been adapted to the format of African Indaba. Due to time constraints the author could not be consulted prior to publication, hence errors and omissions are the editor’s fault.

    Conserving wildlife in Africa is often difficult as it conflicts with humans and their activities. “One way to make conservation gains”, particularly in the African context, “is to capitalize on the importance of wild species in human livelihoods”. The “sustainable harvesting of plants and hunting of animals has often turned out to be a highly effective conservation measure” (Hutton, 2004). Sport hunting has a long and involved history in Africa. The appeal of the classic “African Safari” was stimulated by the likes of Ruark and Hemingway in their numerous tales of hunting and adventure in the wilds of Africa.

    Hunting is an important tool in conservation although it must not be seen as conservation in itself. Commercial hunting is of great value in both the economic and ecological sense. Low offtakes of trophy animals provide good financial returns with minimal investment. Sport hunting is also a major force behind the preservation of wildlife and wild places.

    The growing fragmentation of species’ habitats over the last century has led to the emergence of community based conservation whereby local communities are encouraged to value wildlife through both non-consumptive and consumptive activities (e.g. hunting) from which they receive multiple benefits. Prior to these new “radical” ways of tackling conservation, much of colonial Africa was subject to state-centric “fortress conservation”, in which rural Africans were seen as the enemy of conservation and degraders of the environment. Community conservation on the other hand encourages, through the concept of “sustainable development”, that species, habitats and biodiversity, should be seen as exploitable and managed through conservation and developmental goals.

    Villagers are given a share in license fees paid by wealthy clients and suddenly see a species, such as buffalo or elephant, not as a menacing crop raider but as a highly valuable asset which should be protected. Clients will also be charged a range of fees by the government, collected either directly or on the government’s behalf by the safari operator. Such fees are likely to include a conservation fee, firearms and ammunition permit fees, trophy export fees, airport fees etc. It is through such systems that hunting can be used as a tool in conservation. However, if hunting is to be pursued in areas where wildlife resources are finite, a tight management regime has to be employed in order to ensure its sustainability. Incorrect management of the hunted wildlife would result in unstable population dynamics, diminished gene pools and ultimately loss of species from an area.

    The African Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer, is one of the classic African trophies, and consequently a key species in safari hunting. In Zimbabwe (total hunting earnings 1998: US$23 million) it is the second most important species, in monetary terms. Sport hunting is where the future of the Cape buffalo lies especially outside of formally protected areas.

    Buffalo are classed as one of the “Big 5”. The very nature of buffalo make them a desirable trophy, if not the ultimate big game trophy for the hunting sportsperson. They are unpredictable and thus difficult and dangerous to get close to, hence the hunters’ skills are tested to the full and the true characteristics of a hunt – fear, fascination and adrenaline - are evoked.

    Maintaining a high market value for buffalo hunting relies upon the provision of quality trophies, achieved through the implementation of trophy quota systems. Offtakes need to be carefully regulated and within biological limits. Buffalo populations typically grow at about 7% p a; however, in order to ensure quality trophies offtakes should be limited to 2% p a.

    It is of concern that immature buffalo are being over hunted because of the combined effect of high off-take quotas, and the possible influence of inappropriate measurement systems. There are currently two systems of trophy measurement: the SCI method established in 1978 and the Rowland Ward method from 1892. The latter is the system of trophy measurement most traditionally used by hunters worldwide. When scoring buffalo, RW takes only the spread of the horns into account, such that older animals may score equally as well as younger animals. SCI however, in an effort to produce a more all round score, includes the depth of the curl and the width of the bosses. The use of the SCI system, with which the majority of North American clients, who form 60% of visiting clients, are familiar, is believed to be contributing to younger individuals being shot whereas the use of the RW method is believed to be supportive of more sustain- able off-takes in the long term.

    In safari hunting adult buffalo bulls are selected for their trophy value. Sexual maturity is reached at 4-5 years; however, in most cases the trophy is still considered undesirable at this stage. A quality trophy is most likely a buffalo bull aged between 7 and 12 years. Professional hunters have to rely principally on the characteristics of the bull’s horns in order to determine its potential trophy quality and a possible age for the animal.

    As a trophy reaches its full potential (its prime) the boss hardens forming ridges and the fully grown horns are curved in a hook shape. The tips of the horns are still sharp at this stage, but as the animals age the horn tips are worn down and the bosses become progressively smoother. Such individuals are often found in “bachelor” groups away from breeding herds; the hunting of such groups of individuals is less likely to result in the offtake of immature individuals.

    However, since these groups will join the herds for breeding purposes, being able to judge the relationship between age and trophy size on a more rigorous basis would allow hunters to make better informed decisions. In doing so, the offtake of immature bulls can be prevented, which in turn would be beneficial for the sustainability of quality trophy offtake.

    The SCI measurement system is thought to favor younger “soft-bossed” bulls whose horns are still yet to lose their sharp tips. It is such animals that tend to make the record books but only because the measuring system favors animals with such attributes. Of the top three scoring buffalo bulls in the SCI record books, only one is “hard-bossed”, the other two are still “soft” (i.e. still young). Hunting buffalo at this age is likely to cut short their genetic contribution within the population.

    Establishing a relationship between age and trophy size using each respective scoring system would hopefully allow for better selection on an age basis and hence would contribute to the sustainable hunting of high quality trophies. It would also shed light on the importance of scoring system use and the possible need for adjustments. This study looks specifically at the relationship between the age of hunted bulls and their respective trophy sizes using, RW and SCI scoring methods. Furthermore, the age of each hunted buffalo was determined to within one year using Taylor’s age determination methods.

    The study area was the Middle Zambezi Valley with hunting concessions managed by Parks & Wildlife Authority and settled Communal Land where CAMPFIRE (Communal Areas Man- agement Program for Indigenous Resources) is operational.

    Dande South and Dande Communal Land are operated by Ingwe Safaris with about 45 buffalo bulls on quota out of an estimated population of 1,053 (representative of approximately ½ to ¾ of the buffalo population as aerial census results for the area were inconclusive). Dande North (CAMPFIRE) and Dande Safari Area (Parks and Wildlife) are operated by Swainson’s Safaris. Between the two areas there are about 100 buffalo bulls currently on quota out of an estimated population of 4,037 buffalo. Buffalo populations are moving freely between the two safari areas. Chewore North (Parks and Wildlife) is operated by Big Five Safaris with 55 buffalo bulls on quota from an estimated buffalo population of 1,964.

    The safari areas collectively hold significant numbers of large game, ranging from elephants, hippo, buffalo, and big cats (lion, leopard) to large and small antelope. The safari operators in- volved are highly reputable and constitute some of the biggest names in safari hunting in southern Africa.

    At the start of the hunting season, I requested the operators to retain and tag the lower jaws of each shot buffalo. Both RW and SCI scores were measured and recorded for each trophy. The mandibular molars were extracted from the lower jaws and the age of each shot buffalo determined. I also had the opportunity to discuss views with both clients and professional hunters. The data set obtained represents approximately two thirds of the male buffalo on quota in the concession areas for the year 2004. A total of 91 samples were collected; 29 from Dande South, 30 from Chewore North and 32 from Dande North. The data sets from Chewore North and Dande South are probably representative of the trophy buffalo populations within those areas; the data set from Dande North represents just under half of the quota for the area.

    The average age of the sampled buffalo was 8.01 years. The majority of the buffalo shot (76%) were between 6 and 8 years old; the remaining 24% comprised mostly of 9 and 10 year-olds, with less than 6% of the hunted population being 11 years or older. 3% of the buffalo were considered to be truly immature (5 years in age).

    Dande South exhibited the largest proportion of “young” trophies, with 52% of the sampled quota being 7 years or younger in age (25% are 6 years old). The oldest trophy is only 10 years old. Dande North exemplified a greater proportion of older trophy animals, and contains the highest percentage (40%) of 7 - 8 year-old trophies (animals in their prime). Yet there is still a relatively large percentage (25%) of young individuals (6 year olds) being shot. 16% were 10 years old and 6% reached 12 years. Chewore North has a relatively normal age structure within its hunted sample of trophy bulls, with the greatest number of bulls (35%) being shot at the prime age of 8 years. 16% of the trophies are 6 years old. There is however a sharp decline in trophies of 9 years or older and a “tail” of older animals.

    Given the results of earlier studies, a more plausible explanation is that few 9, 10, 11, and 12 year-olds are being shot because bulls are being taken before they reach that age. The sustainability of trophy hunting is brought therefore into question. Data on trophy ages obtained from Big Five Safaris indicate that trophy age has been relatively stable over the previous 4 years; average ages ranging from 8.7 to 9.9. Ageing of buffalo bulls has also been taking place in Dande North, with the average age ranging from 8 in 2001 to 10 in 2002 and back to 9 in 2003. However, it has since been established that teeth had not been extracted resulting in overestimation of the actual ages. This said the data is still relevant since it provides evidence of relative stability in trophy age in Chewore North and Dande North.

    According to estimated population figures from an aerial census in 2001, the offtake in all three areas exceeds the recommended 2% pa. The estimated buffalo population of Dande North in 2001 was 4037; more recently the same population, from visual estimates on the ground, is judged to be about 5500 animals. If this is the case then the set quota for 2004 is just under the recommended 2%. Although Chewore North and Dande South both have large buffalo populations, the evidence suggests that the recommended offtake of 2% pa has been exceeded. It is also likely that that quota setting is affected by the different management systems employed between Chewore North and Dande North and South.

    It would appear that the average trophy scores (from Chewore North, Dande North and Dande South) are satisfactory for the majority of clients. Whether this is really the case or not is an interesting question. The nature of the desired trophy changes somewhat depending on the client nationality; European clients, especially German and Austrian, tend to prefer “character” trophies, which are usually older animals, the emphasis being on trophy individuality and not size or score. American clients, (60% of the safari client) are inclined towards hunting individuals for their trophy size.

    But hunting and trophy selection is not an exact science. Ul- timately a client will shoot the trophy which, in his mind, is best, and has the backing opinion of the professional hunter, who after all is the client’s “visual measurement method.

    Hunting buffalo is no easy task, and the absence of any truly mature animals could be attributed to the “pressures” of hunting and ultimately, chance. The “pressures” of hunting involve limited time frames, fussy clients, “co-operative” buffalo and of course an element of luck. Whilst these previous two scenarios are possible, the most obvious factor explaining the lack of old trophy buffalo is simply that there are very few old buffalo within the population. Death by natural means is more likely to occur as buffalo age, and is usually around 14 years or older amongst unexploited (protected) wild buffalo populations.

    The average Rowland Ward (RW) score was 36.98 inches with “40 inch” buffalo considered the bench mark for a good quality trophy. The average SCI score was 96.26 inches, just short of the bench mark SCI trophy score of 100 inches.

    Correlation between trophy size and animal age using the RW method indicate that scores decrease minimally with age. The SCI scoring method indicates in contrast the possibility of a strong relationship between trophy size and animal age and scores decrease markedly with age. The difference becomes apparent in the different classification of a “record trophy”.

    The minimum score for the SCI record book is 100 inches. The minimum score for RW is 42 inches. Of the 91 samples taken over the duration of this study, only 4 were eligible for entry into the RW record book, whilst an astounding 34 were eligible for entry into the SCI record book. In terms of RW, only 20 of the buffalo had a trophy score equaling or exceeding the bench mark of 40 inches. The implications of this are that clients are more likely to aim for trophies with an SCI score of 100; not only have they succeeded in achieving the “100 inch” bench mark, but they also have the opportunity to have their names written down in the annals.

    We conclude that there is a significant difference between the RW and SCI scoring systems relative to animal age and younger animals’ trophy attributes are biased by the SCI scoring system in relation to older trophy animals. Trophy bulls are most likely to be shot in their prime when all attributes of the animals horns are considered to be most appealing to the hunter. This is reflected in the average trophy age of 8 years. The average age for the three sample areas in this study is “pulled up” by the presence of a “long tail” of older individuals. The current high offtake of 6-8 year-olds in this study is possibly a sign of a downward trend in relation to buffalo offtake age, and if so, the notion of sustainable trophy hunting is at risk.

    Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant relation- ship between trophy size and age when using the SCI measurement system and not the RW system. Furthermore, the SCI system is shown to favor younger animals more than previously thought. RW trophy scores on the other hand, decline only minimally with age. The point is that a buffalo bull that scores well on the SCI scale is likely to be a young, if not immature individual. If trophy buffalo are being and continue to be shot at ages, which on average are progressively younger, the sustainable hunting of quality trophy buffalo in the Middle Zambezi Valley is doubtful over the long term.

    Possible reasons for this are 2-fold. The quotas set by local councils, whilst allowing sustainable offtake, are too high for sustained trophy quality. Secondly, professional hunters and their clients are ultimately responsible for trophy selection; their attitudes towards selection are important. Adopting the “if I don’t take it now, the next hunter will” attitude is an unfortunate reality, particularly in relation to young animals that already possess all the attributes of a good trophy. The manner and method of hunting is also important; hunting individuals out of herds, will most often result in the offtake of younger bulls, whilst the hunting of “bachelor” groups is more likely to result in the offtake of an indi- vidual in or beyond its prime.

    The SCI scoring method uses attributes of the buffalo’s horns which are best developed in young animals, and whilst this is the case, young animals will continue to be shot. At the same time, RW scoring methods are also inadequate since different buffalo populations have different genetic tendencies for larger or smaller outside spreads. As a result alternative scoring methods have been proposed by Gandy and Reilly (2004). It is based upon a “multiplication factor that is created by dividing the horn tip space measurements, the mean of the two individual horn lengths and then squaring the result”. Thus a good trophy will exhibit typical attributes of an old animal:
    - a wide tip space in relation to individual horn lengths
    - a wide outside spread
    - large boss widths
    - small boss space (distance between inner edges).

    However this last factor, as acknowledged by the authors, and observed during the data collection in this study, is subject to increase in older animals (12+ years of age). It has also been suggested that the current SCI system be adjusted by weighting the boss scores by doubling them, thereby encouraging hunters to take older animals with better developed bosses.

    The sustainable hunting of trophy quality buffalo relies upon setting realistic quotas, which in the cases of Chewore North, Dande North and Dande South, would result in a cutting back of the present quotas. Not only is a sustainable quota important, but so too is the trophy selection by professional hunters and their clients; sustainable hunting necessitates that offtake does not include young animals.

    The adaptation of current scoring systems to favor older animals would be an important step in allowing the establishment of an older “trophy” population.

    The hunting industry is important not only to the economy of Zimbabwe, but also to the many people whose livelihoods are reliant upon it. Zimbabwe has long been regarded as a premier safari destination; the high standards of professionalism within the safari industry and the high quality hunting offered, have together created this reputation.

    Maintaining the quality of hunting also involves maintaining and ensuring trophy quality, for all species alike, such that the country and future generations will still be able to benefit from the industry, as they do today.
  19. richteb

    richteb AH Enthusiast

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    I found Boddington on BufFalo II a great source of information. He covers judging buffalo and what is considered a trophy. I am glad to see that most of what is described in the dvd is covered on this forum. For someone like myself who is planning their first buffalo hunt it is a great way to learn a little before the hunt. As they say a picture is worth a thousand words. Being able to see footage and a short description of the trophy teaches you at least a little about what you may well be looking at when the hunt starts.
  20. DLS

    DLS AH Member

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    Here are a few more buffalo to judge. I took these photos in late May in South Africa.

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